Going further back in history (see above), our esteemed readers will most certainly have seen and admired the renowned actor George C. Scott's moving motion picture rendition of
General George S. Patton, as he was decorated by the Moroccan King H.M. Mohammed V prior to a parade on Moroccan grounds in 1942.
Of particular interest here is that General Patton either took the initiative to receive the Order of the Ouissam Alaouite prior to him obtaining official Washington permission, or he was explicitly permitted to do so prior to his retirement (in his case prior to his accidental death), actually in contravention of Article 1, Section 9, the U.S. Constitution.
Generally speaking, members of the House Gulg(k)owski always were inspiring leaders, regardless of the time and space history had assigned to them. This statement holds equally true when we focus on the various forms of governments that were relevant during the span of their lives here on Earth.
They were always the spark of light when darkness prevailed.
Most Special, Heartfelt and Sincere Tributes
on Behalf of Two Singularly Courageous and in Many Ways Outstanding
Military Officers and Individual Citizens
The Hohenzollern Collection irrefutably documents that the Dynasty of the Princely Count Gulkowski was in noble rank advanced to Princely, Ducal status by H.I.M. Empress/Queen Maria Theresa of Austria-Hungary (and other Crown Lands) in March 1752. This elevation in noble rank included all rights and privileges thereto pertaining.
Beyond that, our most principal noble titles are equally and most solidly confirmed by prominent Chivalric Organizations such as The Eagle Order of Georgia, The Seamless Tunic of Our Lord Jesus Christ; The Military and Hospitaler Order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem; and, especially so by the Chivalric Organization we are most actively involved with, The Royal Confraternity of Saint Teotonio, based in Portugal.
Inhaltsuebersetzung ins Deutsche:
Das Koeniglich-Portugiesische Kollegium fuer den Adel, eine Institution, welche
Beglaubigungen, Anerkennungen und Registrationen aller Privilegien und Rechte, die mit dem Adel verbunden sind, notarisiert, hat seinen Rektor Seine Kaiserliche und Koenigliche Hoheit den Erzherzog Andres Salvador von Habsburg-Lorraine und Salm-Salm, sowie Erzherzog von Oesterreich, Fuerst der Toskana, Fuerst von Boehmen, Fuerst von Ungarn und Grossritter des Oesterreichischen Ordens vom Goldenen Vlies, instruiert, zusammen mit der Uebereinkunft des Hohen Rates und dem Senat:
Seine Koenigliche Hoheit Prince Davit Bagrationi Mukhran Batanishvili, Chef des
Koeniglichen Hauses von Georgien, Fuerst von Mukradi, Fuerst von Kartli, Herzog von Lassos
sowie Grossmeister des Adlerordens von Georgien, dem Nahtlosen Gewand unseres Herrn
Jesus Christus, dem Orden der Heiligen Koenigin Tamar und dem Kronenorden;
Seine Kaiserliche und Koenigliche Hoheit Prinz Osman Rifat von Aegypten;
Ihre Kaiserliche und Koenigliche Hoheit Prinzessin Nilufer, Sultana der Tuerkei und Kaiserliche Osmanische Prinzessin;
Ihre Kaiserliche und Koenigliche Hoheit Prinzessin Irina Djem der Tuerkei;
Seine Majestaet Koenig Solomon IguruI;
Seine Koenigliche Hoheit Sultan Luc Said Mohamed Cheikh and
Seine Koenigliche Hoheit Raja Nhuda Mudzuf Said,
den Fuerstlich-Markgraeflichen Titel des Kaiserhauses von Vietnam sowie seinen
Titel als Herzog von (Nieder-) Schlesien-Glogau (vorgeschlagen und durchgesetzt vom Koeniglichen Haus von Georgien) fuer Paul William Gulgowski-Doliwa wohlgefaelligst anzuerkennen.
Additional further and most relevant information regarding the relationship between the Imperial Habsburg Dynasty and the modern Republic of Portugal.
The late Emperor and King Charles I of Austria-Hungary and other Crown Lands
has found his final resting place in the Pilgrimage Church of Nossa Senhora do Monte
on the Island of Madeira, an integral part of Portugal. He holds "Blessed" status
in the Holy Roman Catholic Church.
Our esteemed international readership may be interested to know that the Ducal/Princely Couple did in fact visit the tomb of Emperor Charles I in 1988.
Please note photographs below.
Naturally, our sympathy remains focused on the House of Habsburg, simply because
H.I. & R.H. Maria Theresa of Austria, Hungary and other Crown Lands advanced us
in the Year of Our Lord 1752 to the exalted noble ranks of Imperial Princes
(Reichsfuersten) and Dukes of Lower Silesia (Glogau).
This, however, does not cause us to ignore our heartfelt admiration and respect for
the present-day leading personalities of the I. & R. House of Hohenzollern, pictured below.
As the fortune of war would have it, the Soviet Armed Forces did not reach Bavaria and for that reason also not the venerable residence of the Prince Bishops of Wuerzburg, Franconia.
For this reason, we feel greatly indebted to the Old Residence of the Wuerzburg Prince Bishops and their treasured archives, which also hold invaluable information on the
Ducal/Princely House Gulgowski-Doliwa.
Crowns are much more than those who are entitled to wear them. They are a symbol for the entirety of a cultural whole and the idea of enlightened statesmanship.
Several Gulkowskis served as members of the Royal Polish College of King Electors.
Although, the privilege and esteem of this position falls short when compared to the German
Prince Electors (Kurfuersten); nevertheless, historically it remains an exalted function within a Constitutional Monarchy. Yet, it is important to know that all of them were regarded "Magnates" with extensive land holdings.
DNA COMPARISON RESULT
The most relevant HVR1 Region of Paul Gulgowski's
mtDNA matches the HVR-1 Region of Marie Antoinette's
mtDNA at all but one marker,
allowing for a 99%
Empress Maria Theresa,
belonged to the House of Habsburg.
Emperor Francis I belonged
to the House of Lorraine
Please note our Strzemie Coat-of-Arms adorned with a Count's coronet (Grafenkrone).
Captain Andrzej Tadeusz Gulgowski
stood resolved to fight against the National Socialists of Germany on Russia's side. However, and most tragically, his destiny became to shed his blood by the hands of Stalin's merciless assassins, whose Soviet State dictate it was to brutally rob Poland of its post-WWII intelligentsia. His sacrifice shall never be forgotten, at least not by the Chiefs and friends of the Ducal/Princely House Gulgowski-Doliwa.
At this time, it is probably most significant to bring to the foreground that the from governmental power dislodged Nobility, especially from primary enthroned Princes with domains in present-day Poland, have found renewed acceptance, respect and recognition in Portugal, a nation with a tolerant, benevolent disposition to its own homespun Nobility as well as foreign Nobles who are encouraged to represent their previous sovereign domains with dignity, honor and historical savvy.
Poland is mentioned here in a somewhat dimmed light, because it had succeeded to impose on the pre-eminent victorious powers of World War I and World War II that the Nobility installed on Polish territory, when it was controlled by Russia, Prussia (which itself had become politically extinct after
World War II) and Austria, that their historical records were to be "completely written out" of all their relevant historical discourses, treaties, honor lists, military accounts, geographical maps, civil records, burial registries and the like.
Under the symbol of the stirrups, they were advanced to the exaulted noble ranks of Imperial Princes and Dukes. However, as Knights, the Gulgowskis earned greatest recognition as members of the Battle Clan Doliwa. See below.
Following the undisputed research principle of pursuing historical cause-and-effect relationships, it is particularly pleasing and gratifying that a direct descendant of H.I&R.M. Empress Maria Theresa of Austria and Queen of Hungary as well as other Crown Lands, H.I.&R.H. the Archduke Andres Salvador of Habsburg-Lorraine and Salm-Salm, etc., etc., now in his capacity as Rector of the Portuguese Royal College of Nobility, with other high ranking worldwide Nobles, has re-certified the credence and respectability of the Ducal/Princely House Gulgowski-Doliwa as the DNA-confirmed descendants of the Dukes of (Lower) Silesia Glogau.
Archduke Andres Salvador and Duke Paul proudly wearing the highly coveted Membership Order of the Royal College of Portuguese Nobility.
Ducal/Princely Titles Documentation of the House Gulgowski-Doliwa
The Ducal/Princely House Gulgowski-Doliwa also enjoys the honor and privilege
of holding Princely/ Margravial titles from the Imperial Nguyen Dynasty of Vietnam.
It is reasonable to conclude that our Artillery Captain was a member of the Szlachta Battle Clan Nalecz.
Next to Franciszek Gulkowski, three others also participated in the Royal Elections delineated in the publication furnished on the left above. They were Adam (Plockiego), Nikolay (Plockiego) and Andrzej Gulkowski z Kars (Polsko Litewskich).
Ever since setting foot on Polish domains, easily 900 years ago, the Gulgowskis enjoyed the status of MIGHTY KNIGHTS.
Over the years, they were admired members of several influential battle clans. Among them were the Jastrzebiec, Bielski, Strzemien, Doliwa and Gul'kovskii.
Beyond that, as we are happy to acknowledge, modern Polish Nobility and Knighthood publications have recommenced to recognize our legitimate claim to Nobility and Knighthood in their most prominent editions. Please note the example below:
A particularly special case in this regard is that of General of the Army Dwight D. Eisenhower,
later President of the United States of America.
After World War II, he was temporarily retired and then reactivated again to become the first Commander-in-Chief of NATO. Thereafter, he succeeded President Truman to the U.S. Presidency.
General Eisenhower received within these historical epochs, according to his Presidential Library and Museum, at least 14 Royal Knighthoods from the Monarchies of the world in existence at that time. All these Royal recognitions had the status of Knight Grand Crosses.
By the way, some of the Kingdoms/Empires awarded him several of their Chivalric Awards, like Great Britain for instance. As in General Patten's case, the principle of Article 1, Section 9 of the U.S. Constitution was basically ignored.
DENMARK: Order of the Elephant
ETHIOPIA: The Order of Salomon and the Order of the Queen of Sheba
GREECE: The Order of George I and the Order of the Savior
JAPAN: The Order of the Chrysanthemum
JERUSALEM: The Order of the Holy Sepulchre
LUXEMBOURG: The Order de la Couronne de Chene
MOROCCO: The Order of Ouissam Alaouite and the Order of Mohammed
NETHERLANDS: The Order of the Lion of the Netherlands
NORWAY: The Order of St. Olaf
THAILAND: The Order of the Royal House of Chakri
UNITED KINGDOM: The Order of the Bath and the Order of the British Empire
Our Greater Coat-of-Arms,
displaying the following highly respectable and widely recognized chivalric Orders:
from top to bottom and from left to right,
The Grand Cordon of the Eagle of Georgia, The Seamless Tunic of our Lord Jesus Christ;
The Commander's Cross of the Hospitaller Order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem;
The Order of Merit First Class of the Federal Republic of Germany;
The Grand Cordon of the Order of Swabia, The Knights of St. Gereon;
The Grand Cordon of the Dragon of Annam;
The Grand Cordon of the Royal Confraternity of Sao Teotonio;
The Order of St. John and The Order Eagle of Silesia in Honor of St. Hedwig.
While Lieutenant Prof. Izydor Gulgowski may be recognized as a truly gentle soul,
Captain Andrzej Tadeusz Gulgowski may be characterized as a tough soldier, but still a man with a mathematically inspired mind, making him an ideal artillery officer.
Prince Juliusz Novina Sokolnicky, President of the Polish Government in Exile, located in London (U.K.),
bestowed on General William Westmoreland the Grand Cordon of the historic Chivalric Order of
St. Stanislas, 18 April 1993. General Westmoreland had previously served as Commander-in-Chief of U.S. Forces in Vietnam and was eventually retired as U.S. Army Chief of Staff, Washington, D.C.
Here, our deserving readers are invited to note the tallest individual in the center, the Archduke, in close proximity H.R.H. Prince Miguel of the Royal Portuguese House and Duke of Viseu.
The gentleman on the far left is non other than our highly revered RCST Grand Prior
Count Ulisses Rolim de Regeida.
Congratulations to HMSH Prince Daniel von Coberly von Reichenberg.
Prince Daniel was awarded the Order of Pius IX, established in 1847.
He received this coveted chivalric decoration in the Commander's Degree
for being an exceptional Catholic, active in the international field, where he
rendered outstanding services to the Holy Roman Catholic Church, the Nobility of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation and Western Civilization society at large.
Excerpt KATYN MEMORIAL WALL - G -
In view of this evidence, but largely because our Dynasty being listed in various records of the Holy Roman Empire, the Imperial Nobility of Poland, the Unii Polskich Ugrupowan Monarchistycznych (The United Organizations of Polish Monarchists, UPUM), under the Regency of Grand Prince Aleksander Podolski, has re-recognized our legitimate claim as Counts of Royal Polish history. By the way, UPUM is represented in the Upper House of the Polish Parliament with three very influential senators.
Mit Begruendung der oben aufgefuehrten richtungsweisenden Koeniglich/Preussischen Adelsliteratur
wurde die folgende Urkunde gestiftet.
Captain Gulkowski, formerly of the Austrian-Hungarian Army, 5th Art. Regt., belonged to the group of Officers that were invited to transfer into the newly formed Polish Army in 1920. His date of rank as a Captain in the Imperial/Royal Army was 1 November 1917. Since then, his last name appeared as Gulgowski.
Of special interest in this particular case is the fact that Captain G. had fought on behalf of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in WWI and the "Hof- und Staats-Handbuch der Oesterreichisch-Ungarischen Monarchie" reports him to have been awarded one of Austria-Hungary's highest medal for military merit (Signum Laudis) in 1917 (see above).
Wikipedia is one of the sources that completely recognizes the Royal College of Portuguese Nobility and its distinguished Rector H.I.&R.H. Archduke Andres Salvador of Habsburg-Lorraine and Salm-Salm, etc.,etc.
For all of the latter information to make sense, we offer an English translation for the benefit of our esteemed readers.
Although the Gulgowski Dynasty possessed dozens and more prominent and highly productive noble estates during their time of historical pre-imminence, the three above are listed in the Hohenzollern Papers, because they continued as recognized Gulgowski properties beyond the Silesian War sequence.
Editorial Note: While our principal line of ancestors went over to Prussia after the Third Silesian War (1763) and later migrated to the Rhine region of Germany (in the 19th century still part of the Kingdom of Prussia), a cadet line of ours remained in the East and they eventually became Polish citizens after WWI, when Poland was reestablished as an independent nation by the victorious Western Allies.
Additional References and Further Information
The original registry of Nobles within the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation was first published in 1763 by C.W. Ettinger in Gotha at the request of Duke Frederick III of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. The files and documents of this monumental work were destructed by the Soviet military in 1944. The effects or wars, the ravages of time, and the fact that many Sovereign and Non-Sovereign Houses are no longer in existence made future listings of Nobility frequently very difficult if not to say impossible. The ebb and flow of governmental powers, change of national boundaries and other such calamaties did the rest.
Still, in the Spring Eternal, there is always hope for a resurrection. The following references give credence to this statement.
1. Almanach de Gotha, Princely and Ducal Houses of Europe, Volume III - G III
2. Almanach de Gotha, The Index of Polish Princely Houses
3. The Roman Empire Association, The Imperial Nobility of Poland
4. The Roman Empire Association, The Imperial Nobility of Germany
5. Imperial Noble Houses of Germany
6. The Imperial Nobility of Germany of The Holy Roman Empire, Wiki
7. Princely and Ducal Houses of Europe, Vol. III - GIII
8. Nobility of the World, Vol. VIII, Poland, Index of Polish Princely Houses
9. Royal Confraternity of Sao Teotonio, VIP Member List
10. Governing Council and Register of the Imperial Nobility of the Holy Roman Empire
and last, but not least
11. Almanac of Wuerzburg, Directory of Sovereign and Noble Houses, 2014 by
HMSH Prince Daniel von Coberly von Reichenberg
The documentation provided above proves beyond the shadow of a doubt not just that the Gulgowski Dynasty existed but also that they did exceedingly well in Austria, Prussia and Poland. There is also a Gulgowski branch in Russia that also exists to this very day.
The Ducal/Princely Couple in the Esteemed Company of
His Majesty Lhagyari Trichen Namgyal Wangchuk, The King of Tibet.
The translation in red letters above speaks for itself.
Mal- and Mistreatment of a 1,000-Year-Old Nobility in Europe
One Prominent Example:
Lieutenant Professor Izydor (Ernst Seefried in German) Gulgowski
extensively researched and authored a definitive and entirely complete ethnographic history of unparalleled academic brilliance of the Kashubian People in Northern Pomerania, which bestowed upon him eternal fame by the Kashubs. He also wrote numerous essays of substance and beauty. His Christmas Poem "Ein Kaschubisches Weihnachtsgedicht" can move one to tears. It is so touching that it became the essence of a Christmas song. As a soldier, he can be compared to the sensitive Hermann Loens. Since he expired on 22 September 1925, prior to the commencement of WWII, he was spared the indignities and brutalities of the Soviet Bolshevik system in Poland thereafter. His dedicated loyalty and intellectual love for the Kashubian People was so profound that, over his entire lifetime, he remained steadfastly committed to them, even when this unselfish act forced him to forego his German citizenship and assuming the full mantle of Polish responsibilities, including military service.
Because Theodora and Izydor enjoyed a truly exemplary marriage, full of love, dedication and compassion, many young Kashubian couples make pilgrimages to their gravesite, so they may promise their own new love to one another, hoping and praying that their unions may endure as the love of Theodora and Izydor has endured even beyond death.
The following photograph depicts the former marital estate of Izydor and Theodora,
which is known today as the Theodora and Izydor Gulgowski Kashubian Ethnographic Park Museum at Wdzydze Kiszewskie.
We are eternally grateful to the Imperial and Royal Highnesses portrait above for having raised and retained us at the levels of highest Nobility during their immensely prominent and successful reign in Central European history.
Generals Norman Schwarzkopf and Henry Shelton are being advanced to the Noble Ranks of
Royal Knights by the Monarchs of Great Britain and Thailand, respectively.
The following documentation in regard to this matter clearly illustrates that what is good and proper for U.S. Generals is equally good and proper for U.S. Politicians. Kindly recognize the example provided below, that pertains to the late Senator Edward M. Kennedy of Massachusetts.
This is, among other considerations, the most prominent justification, why we
proudly call ourselves GULGOWSKI-DOLIWA.
Titles of Nobility in USA / Adelstitel in den USA
An intensive conversation with our local District Attorney regarding the subject above has netted the following results.
Eine intensive Unterhaltung mit unserem hiesigen Generalstaatsanwalt hat hinsichtlich obigen Betreffs Folgendes ergeben.
First of all, I offer the following text of Article 1, Section 9 for the purpose of providing a general basis of understanding on the matter.
Zuerst biete ich den folgenden Text des Artikel 1, Absatz 9 zum grundlegenden Verständnis an.
A) The following Article 1, Section 9, is the oldest one locatable.
"No title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States. No person holding any office for profit (a business person) or trust (an Armed Forces Officer or Governmental Official) shall, without the consent of Congress, accept any present, Office, or Title, of any kind whatsoever, from any King, Prince or foreign state."
Der jetzt folgende Artikel 1, Absatz 9, ist der älteste der gefunden werden konnte.
"Kein Adelstitel darf von den Vereinigten Staaten vergeben werden. Keine Person, die Verantwortung für ein Geschäft oder Offiziers/Beamten Rang trägt, darf, ohne die ausdrückliche Genehmigung des Amerikanischen Kongresses, ein Geschenk, Amt oder Titel, gleichwohl welcher Art, von irgendeinem König, regierenden Prinzen oder ausländischer Nation annehmen."
B) The next, however, also authoritative Article 1, Section 9, has also been utilized by various US Courts in the adjudication of certain Civil Court cases. As noticeable, this version is much more liberal.
"The Title of Nobility Clause prohibits Congress from granting any Title of Nobility. In addition, it specifies that no Officer (or business/state official) may accept, without consent of Congress, any gift, payment, Office or title from a foreign ruler or state. However, a US citizen may receive a foreign Office (Title) before or after their period of public service." (Please note photos at the end of this page.)
Der nächste, jedoch ebenfalls rechtlich bindende Artikel 1, Absatz 9, ist ebenfalls bei verschiedenen amerikanischen Gerichtsinstanzen in gewissen Verwaltungsgerichtsfällen angewendet worden. Wie ganz klar ersichtlich ist, ist diese Version entscheidend grosszügiger ausgelegt.
"Die Adelstitelklausel verbietet es dem Amerikanischen Kongress irgendwelche Adelstitel zu verleihen. Weiter wird klargestellt, dass kein (Militärischer) Offizier, privater Geschäftsführer oder Öffentlicher Beamte, ohne die ausdrückliche Genehmigung des Kongresses, ein Geschenk, Wertpapier/Metalle, etc., Öffentliche Ämter oder Adelstitel von einem ausländischen Regierungschef/Staat annehmen darf, es sei denn einer dieser Akte geschieht entweder vor oder nach dem er ein amerikanisches Amt bekleidet hat." (Bitte beachten Sie die Bilder am Ende dieser Seite.)
- - - VERY IMPORTANT - - -
C) The very recent, presently by US Courts applied version of Article 1, Section 9, appears to be the most liberal interpretation to date.
"While the US Constitution, as it stands, places certain limits on titles, it does not entirely bar them. Nothing, for instance, prevents an ordinary citizen from holding or inheriting a (noble) title. While non-US citizens are required to renounce all titles as part of their naturalization process, the son (daughter) of a hereditary title holder, who happens to be born in the US (and is thus automatically a citizen), can inherit his title upon his father's (mother's) death. Further, certain foreign military titles and decorations can be accepted by members of the Armed Forces. And, since Germany abolished all titles in 1944, making them part of a person's name, naturalization does not require them to be renounced. "
- - - SEHR WICHTIG - - -
"Das Amerikanische Grundgesetz, so wie es jetzt zu Buche steht, bedingt gewisse Grenzen hinsichtlich (Adeliger) Titel. Allerdings sind solche Titel nicht gänzlich verboten. Nichts, um nur ein Beispiel zu nennen, verbietet es einem normalen Staatsbürger einen Adelstitel zu führen oder zu erben. Während man von nicht-US Bürgern, bevor sie die amerikanische Staatsbürgerschaft erhalten, verlangt ihre Adelstitel zu widerrufen, ein Sohn (eine Tochter) eines solchen Adelstitelinhabers, der in Amerika geboren wurde (und darum automatisch amerikanischer Staatsbürger ist), darf den Adelstitel seines Vaters (seiner Mutter) nach deren Tod übernehmen. Zusätzlich, bestimmte ausländische militärische (bzw. auch ritterliche) Titel und Auszeichnungen dürfen von Mitgliedern des amerikanischen Militärs angenommen werden. Und, da Deutschland seine Adelstitel im Jahre 1944 abgeschafft hat, während diese allerdings als Teilinhalts des Nachnamens gesetzlich anerkannt wurden, brauchen diese titelbeinhaltenden Namen bei der amerikanischen Einbürgerung nicht widerrufen zu werden. "
OUR EASTERN DNA COMPARISON RESULTS
indicate most prominently our connection to Genghis Khan.
The Gulgowski Y-DNA Haplotype amounts to no less than 94%,
clearly documenting our Dynasty's motivation to military service on four continents.
The Coat-of-Arms Doliwa,
(Alt. Names: Doliwczky, Dolwita, Tres Rosae;
Defintely Mentioned in 1099 and 1311)
The name Doliwa is reportedly derived from an assault against the city of Liwo,
in the Polish language "do Liwa."
The precise date of this military engagement could not definitely be ascertained.
Their Imperial and Royal Highnesses Prince Georg and Princess Sophie of Prussia.
In the second photograph above, Prince Georg is depicted in a Major's uniform
of the German Army Forces' Mountain Infantry Division.
Our kind readers are alerted to the fact that Archduke Andres Salvador displays on his evening attire the Order of the Golden Fleece. This highly revered decoration was established in the Year of Our Lord 1430 by Duke Philip III of Burgundy. Its current Grand Masters are King Felipe VI of Spain and Archduke Karl of Austria.
This most important indicator shows that Archduke Andres Salvador not only is a most important individual in Portugal but is also held in high respect in Spain, thusly being a man to reckon with on the entire Iberian Peninsula as well as the Nation of Georgia.
The following picture documents one of the plenary sessions of the Portuguese Royal College of Nobility.
For further information on the Czarist Russian Gul'kovskii Coat-of-Arms, your kind attention is invited to our "Gulg(k)ovskii Dynasty in Czarist Russia" link.
The inquisitive eye will undoubtedly recognize a certain similarity between the
Doliwa and the Gul'kovskii Knighthood Coat-of-Arms.
About the origin of the Strzemie Battle Clan:
At the time when Polish King Bolestaw Chroby (1001-1025) conducted war on Russian territory, a knight fell from his horse in battle, leaving the horse dead. Just at that moment, the fallen warrior observed, while one of his feet had inadvertently entangled itself in its stirrup, that he had become marked for a dangerous attack by one of his enemies, who had resolved to give him the stab of death. With a tremendous effort of strength and resolve, the knight in question ripped loose his stirrup with straps and utilized these items as a weapon against his opponent, whom he killed and then mounted that man's horse making it his own.
An Austrian court has decided that Archduke Karl of Austria may no longer call himself by that name.
Instead, from now on, he is pure and simple Karl Habsburg.
Morally and decently upright, as well as intellectually well-endowed people will probably take exception to this historically insensitive judgment, especially when one takes into consideration the myriad achievements of the Habsburg Dynasty. A visit to Vienna will undoubtedly convince any visitor that alone the architectural achievements of Austria are closely related to this most prominent aristocracy. We are talking here about marvelous edifices in the Classical, Renaissance, Baroque, Rococo, Neoclassical and "Biedermeier" styles.
Relevant Excerpts to Lesser Titles of Nobility
Royal and Republican Poland had always great difficulties in accepting noble titles that were bestowed by other national Monarchies onto meritorious Polish Aristocrat-like individuals possessing large land holdings.
The Szlachta Knight, approximately every tenth Pole, enjoyed the privilege of this noble status. The last King of Poland, Stanislaw August Poniatowski, had evolved from this aristocratic class.
The Gulgowski Dynasty, who had its origin in Germany, sought its fortune and fame in Poland and for that reason moved to Poland as early as 1125. Not right away, but eventually, they attained the status of Princely Counts by the grace of Emperor Charles VI. This was in 1733.
On 5 February 1738, Count Gulgowski is reported to have relocated his family to his estates in Greater Poland. These extensive land holdings have been documented under our webpage "Estates and Honors."